During the 64th Annual U.P. Water Treatment System Operator’s Training, which is associated with the American Water Works Association. Manistique competed against 11 other communities in a drinking water taste off. Manistique’s water supply is drawn from the Indian River – something which sets Manistique apart form many of the other communities in the taste competition. It’s very hard for a surface water treatment plant to compete against groundwater systems. Manistique is the first surface water plant to win the competition in the U.P.
Last year the city upgraded it’s water treatment plant to use ozone and granular activated carbon filtration in order to meet new drinking water quality rules making it the first in the U.P. One of the primary uses for ozone water treatment is taste and odor improvement. What makes ozone especially attractive for this application is that it can simultaneously improve water taste while also imrpoving disinfection and removing other water impurities. This is the case in Manistique.
New Jersey American Water has built a new water treatment plant in Short Hills, NJ to meet the standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act including the control of disinfection by-products. The new plant was built alongside two older plants, one that was built in 1929 and the second built in 1958. The 1958 plant remained online during construction.
The new facility cost $78 million to build, which was funded by a grant from the New Jersey Environmental Infrastructure Trust, and created 200 jobs. It can produce 14 million gallons of water a day that meets or exceeds state and federal standards.
The new plant has ozone water treatment and allows New Jersey American Water to comply with the by-products disinfection rule and improves taste and odor for the facility’s customers. Raw water is pumped from the reservoir and ozone gas is added to the raw water as needed. A coagulant is added to the water to remove natural organic matter suspended in the water. After that, the water is mixed is rapid mixed with paddle mixers to form floc and then goes on to the Dissolved Air Flotation basins. Tiny bubbles float the floc to the surface and form a sludge blanket which is removed by using a mechanical scrapper. Once it leaves the DAF basin it enters filters which remove any remaining suspended solids from the water. A disinfectant and corrosion inhibitor are then added before the water leaves the plant to the distribution system.
Boulder’s wastewater treatment plant started up a new $3 million UV disinfection system purify the city’s wastewater. Flows are 12.5 million gallons per day of wastewater. Costs are comparable to the previously used chlorine gas/sulfur dioxide chemicals previously employed, however the safety and environmental aspects of UV are dramtically better than the chemicals.
The UV does not create disinfection byproducts that may be harmful to aquatic life, reduces the carbon footprint of the plant by elimianting the need to transport the chemicals and improves the safety and security of the facility related to the storage and handling of the chlorine and sulfur dioxide. A failure of one of he 2,000 pound storage cylinders could result in an extensive evacuation of people for a couple of miles around the plant. In total, the plant stored upwards of six tons of the toxic chemicals on site at any given time. Hazard response teams were on call in case of any kind of accident.
UV wastewater disinfection has become an important technology. Most new facilities constructed have dopted UV. Different kinds of UV systems exist. Boulder uses a low-pressure, high-output UV system.
Other technologies such as advanced oxidation or combining UV with ozone water treatment or hydrogen peroxide can potentially remove trace organics or small carbon products. Boulder has not considered those technologies yet, but is leaving its options open. UV, ozone and other related technologies are changing the way water and wastewater are treated. These technologies reduce the formation of dangerous byproducts, improve safety and security at the facilities and provide better treatment.
Ozone: Science and Engineering is a peer reviewed publication of the International Ozone Associated with a distinguished and international editorial board.
The first issue of Ozone: Science & Engineering was published in
early 1979 with Dr. L. J. Bollyky as the Editor-in-Chief. Almost 35 years after its launch it has become a highly cited journal and a definitive source of information on ozone and related scientific topics. Its nearly 1,200 articles is a a huge database on the ozone field with most of those articles now available on line and searchable.
The articles cover the full span of ozone related topics including methods of making ozone, the chemistry of ozone and related species such as the hydroxyl radical, and various applications for the use of ozone in both the aqueous and gas phase.
As a student studying ozone or a professional working in the field it is an essential reference source. It can be found on-line at www.tandfonline.com.
Poughkeepsies’ Water Treatment Facility selected a system that uses ozone and biologically activated carbon to upgrade the facility at a cost of $18 million. the new process will reduce the organic material that serves as a precursor for potentially dangerous disinfection byproducts. One of these byproducts, trihalomethanes, has been found at high levels in the Greenbush water district in the Town of Hyde Park and the Hopewell Glen district in the Town of East Fishkill.
Ozone water treatment breaks down organic molecules to smaller more biodegradeable compounds while oxygenating the water. This creates an environment where aerobic bacteria can readily consume the organics. The biologically activated active carbon serves as a place for the bacteria to live. This type of carbon has a large surface area so that the number of bacreria is high for the volume of the carbon bed. Thus large amounts of organic material can be removed efficiently.
The process will ensure that each distribution system that receives treated drinking water from the plant remains in compliance with stiffer testing procedures mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Those new procedures will roll out this fall.
Water drawn from the Hudson River is treated at the plant and then sent to water systems in the Town and City of Poughkeepsie, the Town of Hyde Park and the Town of East Fishkill.
The book, “Chemistry of Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment – From Basics Principles to Application” was recommended by Professor Martin Jekel fo the Technical University of Berlin in the industry journal Ozone News published by the International Ozone Association. Ozone has a long history in the field of water treatment covering over a century of application. The book is authored by Clemen von Sonntag and Urs von Gunten. Both authors are widely published researchers in the ozone water treatment literature. The book includes the history of ozone, its properties and reactions, and applications. It also includes and extensive reference list of 900 citations along with a detailed index. the book was recommended for students and professionals working int eh field of ozone water treatment.
Whenever there is a drought, Jamaican households go without water and crops yields are affected. There is also an increase in water-borne illnesses such as gastroenteritis. One method for overcoming the problems associated with occasions of drought in Jamaica is reclaiming water.
Reclamation of water is the treatment or processing of wastewater to make it reusable. Treatment involves the physical separation of particles followed by the use of microorganisms to remove dissolved organic matter and finally chlorine, ultraviolet radiation or ozone to make water suitable for human consumption. In the United States, this practice began at the beginning of the 19th century in Arizona and California. The recycled water was utilized to irrigate lawns and gardens and was also used as cooling water. Currently, US installations in California and Florida mainly use ozone based reclamation processes because it provides superior disinfection and micro pollutant reduction.
The benefits of recycling water are of such that many countries have embraced it in some form. Israel began using recycled water in 1965 to irrigate crops; in 1984 Tokyo used recycled water to flush toilets and in 1999 in Australia wastewater reclaimed from a treatment plant was used to irrigate vegetable crops
The Monterey (California) Regional Water Pollution Control Agency did a study in 1987 which they updated in 1998 which showed that recycled water from a nearby waste water treatment plant was as safe as well water when used to irrigate food crops. In 2003 the Florida Department of Environmental Protection stated at the 19th Annual Water Reuse Symposium that there was no evidence or documentation of any disease associated with water reuse systems in the United States or in other countries that have reasonable standards for reuse.
The reuse of water has been done safely and has been beneficial for many countries and can be beneficial for Jamaica as well. Reclaiming water can serve as a protection against droughts for Jamaicans who are consistently without water during periods of little or no rainfall. Jamaican farmers consistently face challenges with the supply of water to irrigate crops. Reuse water could be beneficial in this regard and lead to economic stability.
The challenge of water reclamation is developing the infrastructure. While the process is well proven around the world, the safe production of reclaimed water requires significant capital investment. Given the potential to help countries such as Jamaica, organizations like the UN, World Bank and similar organizations may be able to make loans to support such development.
The Milwaukee Water Works is a national leader in providing safe, high-quality drinking water. The finished water is distributed to an estimated 830,000 residents of Milwaukee and 15 other communities in the metropolitan area meets or exceeds all federal and state drinking water standards.
Each year, the Water Works annually tests Lake Michigan water and fully treated water for more than 500 potential contaminants while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires tests for just 91. Monitoring water quality cost $1.2 million in 2012. Monitoring of un-regulated chemicals and organisms is done as a precaution to ensure the water is safe, Couillard.
Multiple steps in the water treatment process are barriers that prevent contaminants from reaching household taps. Treatment begins with ozone, the primary disinfectant capable of killing parasites, including Cryptosporidium. Ozone water treatment also destroys harmful compounds as well as substances that could cause taste and odor problems. Particles are removed in filters before chlorine is added as a secondary disinfectant to prevent growth of bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms in water mains.
The City of Valdosta Water Treatment Plant has been recognized as the 2013 Water Treatment Plant of the Year by the Georgia Association of Water Professionals (GAWP).
The plant was recently evaluated by GAWP inspectors on its well field operations, chemical processes and documentation, and scored 90% or better in all areas.
The water treatment plant processes over 3.5 billion gallons of drinking water for its residential, business and industrial customers annually. The state-of-the-art facility obtains the city’s water supply from 7 wells that are drilled into an underground layer of porous, water-bearing limestone known as the Upper Floridan Aquifer.
Originally built in 1992, the plant’s major treatment systems were upgraded in 2007 to maintain quality water services while keeping up with city growth. The plant uses ozone as the primary treatment process and was the first municipal plant in Georgia to use this technology. It has many innovative features, including on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite for secondary disinfection and computer monitoring and control of treatment processes.
The Georgia Association of Water Professionals (GAWP) is a not-for-profit association founded in 1932 with membership of over 4,000 water and wastewater treatment professionals. The organization’s main purpose is to educate and assist those who have an interest in the proper management and protection of Georgia’s water resources.
The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant in Mississauga, Ontario is celebrating its 60th anniversary. The celebration was held in the new administration and maintenance building that was designed to LEED Gold standards. It features a green roof, a design that automatically adjusts lighting and airflow, and geothermal power.
It was originally built to treat lake water by adding chlorine with a design capacity of 3 MGD. When the latest expansion is completed in 2015 the capacity will be 215 MGD. It will be one of the largest water treatment plants in the world and the largest in Canada. The original plant and the many expansions were engineered by CH2M Hill Canada or predecesor companies.
The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant is being expanded and improved yet again. The plant now uses membrane filtration, ozone water treatment and UV disinfection. As a result it is using some of the most advanced drinking water treatment technology in the world, resulting in tastes good and meets the highest standards for safety.