Ontario Water Treatment Plant Adds Advanced Oxidation

Lorne Park Water Treatment Plant project split into two contracts

The Lorne Park Water Treatment Plant on the shores of Lake Ontario is undergoing a $200-million expansion which will increase the plant’s water producing capacity from 347 megalitres per day to 500 ML/d. New planned growth in northwest Brampton and infill development in Mississauga is the catalyst behind the expansion, which will also introduce new state-of-the-art technology, as well as boosting its capacity.

The plant is incorporating new technology including ultra-filters, membranes, ultraviolet disinfection and advanced oxidation for taste and odor compounds. Actual construction started in 2008 and is expected to continue until 2012, but the roots of the expansion go back to 1999, when it was first identified as a crucial project in a water and wastewater master servicing plan. A major objective was to expand the plant and introduce the new technology without adding to its footprint.

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Andover Successful Treating Drinking Water with Ozone

The Andover Water Division was named 2009 Utility of the Year by the New England Water Works Association, a Massachusetts based not for profit organization of water works professionals. The award recognized the Town of Andover and the Andover Water Division for making significant improvements to its drinking water system.

The Andover Water Treatment Plant was one of the first in Massachusetts to implement an ozone treatment system to improve disinfection and enhance the filtration process. The original ozone system was upgraded in 2005 with latest available ozone equipment to further improve the water treatment process and efficiency. The Andover plant is one of only a handful of treatment facilities in Massachusetts utilizing ozone.

In 2008 the Andover Water Treatment Plant filtration system was also enhanced with the construction of two additional filter units and the complete rehabilitation of the six existing filtration units. The additional filtration units provide the facility with improved purification capability and redundancy.

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Ozone Generators to Remove Odors from Smoking Tobacco Products Can Create More Dangerous Compounds

Ozone generators are often used in hotel rooms, cars and private homes to get rid of the smell of cigarette smoke. A recent Los Angeles Times report indicates that ozone systems designed for odor control can be harmful. Researchers at the Univeristy of California’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have found that ozone combines with nicotine and other components of cigarette smoke to produce chemicals that are a greater asthma hazard than the original smoke.

The LBLN researchers reported in the journal Atmospheric Environment that the chemicals reacted to form the ultrafine aerosols — smaller than those generated by smoking itself, and thus able to penetrate more deeply into the lungs. They also generated toxic compounds with a strong potential to stimualte asthma.

LBNL reported earlier this year that smoking can deposit nicotine and other products on furniture and other surfaces, where it can be released over long periods of time. This so-called thirdhand smoke constitutes a previously unsuspected source of exposure to carcinogenic and asthma-inducing chemicals. Attempting to removethe residue with ozone — which was thought to react with the chemicals and destroy them — can apparently create even more hazardous compounds.

The study was funded by the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California Office of the President.

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Japanese Cities to Add Ozone Water Treatment

Hanshin Water Supply Authority’s Amagasaki Waterworks, which supplies purified water to the cities of Kobe, Amagasaki, Nishinomiya and Ashiya has purchased ozone water treatment equipment. The newly installed equipment will start operating in August 2010.

Ozone systems disinfect, deodorize, decolorize and remove organic matter with far greater oxidizing power than chlorine, while producing harmless oxygen as the only by-product. Ozonization is a highly efficient water treatment technology with low environmental impact.

Amagasaki Waterworks, located in Amagasaki City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, has supplied purified water to the four cities since 1942. In 2001, its first high-level water treatment equipment unit was installed to supply clean and palatable water through ozone treatment and activated carbon filtration. The new system will increase water treatment capacity and help stabilize water supply.

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Ozone and UV Good Choices for Public Safety at Water Parks

In 1998, an outbreak of E. coli at White Water Park near Atlanta resulted in illness for 26 children aged 12 and under, seven hospitalizations for kidney failure, and the death of one child. According to the Center for Disease Control, this tragedy marked an increase in national awareness of the importance of recreational water quality. As for the park itself, it installed automated testing systems throughout and increased chlorine levels from the recommended 2 parts per million to 3.5.

According to the Center for Disease Control, Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs) traced to water parks, swimming pools and water play areas can be caused by a single person who contaminates the entire swimming area. When a swimmer swallows water in a water feature that has been contaminated with E. coli bacteria, the result can be serious and even deadly.

Water parks have a vested interest in maintaining clean water. One outbreak of bacteria-borne disease can cut attendance dramatically and permanently tarnish a reputation. But in many states there’s no government agency making sure that water parks are providing clean water.

The chlorine that water parks use doesn’t kill everything and the time it takes varies. When pH and disinfectant levels are correct, chlorine kills most germs that cause recreational water illness within minutes, but it takes longer to kill some germs, like Cryptosporidium, which can survive for days even in a properly disinfected pool. According to the CDC, because Cryptosporidium has developed a tolerance to chlorine, reported cases of disease from the germ more than doubled from 2004 to 2007.

A secondary method of water purification is also necessary for complete safety, and new ones are constantly being developed. Ozone and ultraviolet treatment are two that have been proven effective and are in use at some water parks. As a result of a cryptosporidium-fueled outbreak at an upstate New York water park, New York State requires the use, in addition to chlorine, of ultra-violet or ozone treatment of water in water parks.

There is currently no federal regulatory authority governing the operation and maintenance of water parks. All codes are approved and enforced by state and local agencies. But the CDC is about to release the first part of a “Model Aquatic Health Code” that it hopes will become a national standard. The full Code will cover all aspects of recreational water venues, including guidelines on preventing and responding to recreational water illnesses.

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New Reports from the WateReuse Research Foundation on Advanced Oxidation

The following reports have been recently published by the WateReuse Research Foundation:

Low Cost Treatment Technologies for Small Scale Water Reclamation Plants (WRF-06-008)
This study identifies and evaluates established and innovative technologies that provide treatment of flows of less than one million gallons per day. The report includes an extensive cost database, where the cost and operation data from existing small-scale wastewater treatment and water reuse facilities have been gathered and synthesized.

Oxidative Treatments of Organics in Membrane Concentrates (WRF-05- 010)
The use of membrane processes for wastewater treatment and reuse is rapidly expanding, especially the use of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The goal of this study was to develop an oxidation process for removing organics in membrane concentrates. While previous projects have focused on issues associated with inorganic salts, utilities have few resources to treat organics or microbiological organisms present in membrane concentrates.

Reaction Rates and Mechanisms of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Reuse (WRF-04-017)
The main objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the water-based free radical chemistry in the destruction of organic microconstituents. The long-term goal of research of this nature is to provide the data necessary to develop kinetic models that describe the underlying chemistry for advanced oxidation process applications.

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Columbus, OH to Adopt Ozone for Drinking Water Treatment

The City of Columbus’ Hap Cremean drinking water treatment plant will be converted to the use of ozone and biologically active filtration (BAF) by 2013. The change is driven by the EPA Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts rule that takes effect in 2012. The Hap Cremean plant has a capacity of 100 MGD. A variety of alternatives treatments were considered during the planning stage including GAC and membrane filtration.

The system will be designed with a maximum ozone dose of 7 mg/l and an average dose of 5.3 mg/l. The ozone transfer efficiency is expected to be in the range of 91%. Bromate, a potential ozone disinfection byproduct, is expected to be 1.6 micrograms/l, well below the 10 microgram/l EPA limit. The ozone/BAF is expected to reduce TOC levels an additional 14-24 percent versus the current treatment methods.

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