Ozone: Science and Engineering is a peer reviewed publication of the International Ozone Associated with a distinguished and international editorial board.
The first issue of Ozone: Science & Engineering was published in
early 1979 with Dr. L. J. Bollyky as the Editor-in-Chief. Almost 35 years after its launch it has become a highly cited journal and a definitive source of information on ozone and related scientific topics. Its nearly 1,200 articles is a a huge database on the ozone field with most of those articles now available on line and searchable.
The articles cover the full span of ozone related topics including methods of making ozone, the chemistry of ozone and related species such as the hydroxyl radical, and various applications for the use of ozone in both the aqueous and gas phase.
As a student studying ozone or a professional working in the field it is an essential reference source. It can be found on-line at www.tandfonline.com.
Poughkeepsies’ Water Treatment Facility selected a system that uses ozone and biologically activated carbon to upgrade the facility at a cost of $18 million. the new process will reduce the organic material that serves as a precursor for potentially dangerous disinfection byproducts. One of these byproducts, trihalomethanes, has been found at high levels in the Greenbush water district in the Town of Hyde Park and the Hopewell Glen district in the Town of East Fishkill.
Ozone water treatment breaks down organic molecules to smaller more biodegradeable compounds while oxygenating the water. This creates an environment where aerobic bacteria can readily consume the organics. The biologically activated active carbon serves as a place for the bacteria to live. This type of carbon has a large surface area so that the number of bacreria is high for the volume of the carbon bed. Thus large amounts of organic material can be removed efficiently.
The process will ensure that each distribution system that receives treated drinking water from the plant remains in compliance with stiffer testing procedures mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Those new procedures will roll out this fall.
Water drawn from the Hudson River is treated at the plant and then sent to water systems in the Town and City of Poughkeepsie, the Town of Hyde Park and the Town of East Fishkill.
The book, “Chemistry of Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment – From Basics Principles to Application” was recommended by Professor Martin Jekel fo the Technical University of Berlin in the industry journal Ozone News published by the International Ozone Association. Ozone has a long history in the field of water treatment covering over a century of application. The book is authored by Clemen von Sonntag and Urs von Gunten. Both authors are widely published researchers in the ozone water treatment literature. The book includes the history of ozone, its properties and reactions, and applications. It also includes and extensive reference list of 900 citations along with a detailed index. the book was recommended for students and professionals working int eh field of ozone water treatment.
Whenever there is a drought, Jamaican households go without water and crops yields are affected. There is also an increase in water-borne illnesses such as gastroenteritis. One method for overcoming the problems associated with occasions of drought in Jamaica is reclaiming water.
Reclamation of water is the treatment or processing of wastewater to make it reusable. Treatment involves the physical separation of particles followed by the use of microorganisms to remove dissolved organic matter and finally chlorine, ultraviolet radiation or ozone to make water suitable for human consumption. In the United States, this practice began at the beginning of the 19th century in Arizona and California. The recycled water was utilized to irrigate lawns and gardens and was also used as cooling water. Currently, US installations in California and Florida mainly use ozone based reclamation processes because it provides superior disinfection and micro pollutant reduction.
The benefits of recycling water are of such that many countries have embraced it in some form. Israel began using recycled water in 1965 to irrigate crops; in 1984 Tokyo used recycled water to flush toilets and in 1999 in Australia wastewater reclaimed from a treatment plant was used to irrigate vegetable crops
The Monterey (California) Regional Water Pollution Control Agency did a study in 1987 which they updated in 1998 which showed that recycled water from a nearby waste water treatment plant was as safe as well water when used to irrigate food crops. In 2003 the Florida Department of Environmental Protection stated at the 19th Annual Water Reuse Symposium that there was no evidence or documentation of any disease associated with water reuse systems in the United States or in other countries that have reasonable standards for reuse.
The reuse of water has been done safely and has been beneficial for many countries and can be beneficial for Jamaica as well. Reclaiming water can serve as a protection against droughts for Jamaicans who are consistently without water during periods of little or no rainfall. Jamaican farmers consistently face challenges with the supply of water to irrigate crops. Reuse water could be beneficial in this regard and lead to economic stability.
The challenge of water reclamation is developing the infrastructure. While the process is well proven around the world, the safe production of reclaimed water requires significant capital investment. Given the potential to help countries such as Jamaica, organizations like the UN, World Bank and similar organizations may be able to make loans to support such development.
The Milwaukee Water Works is a national leader in providing safe, high-quality drinking water. The finished water is distributed to an estimated 830,000 residents of Milwaukee and 15 other communities in the metropolitan area meets or exceeds all federal and state drinking water standards.
Each year, the Water Works annually tests Lake Michigan water and fully treated water for more than 500 potential contaminants while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires tests for just 91. Monitoring water quality cost $1.2 million in 2012. Monitoring of un-regulated chemicals and organisms is done as a precaution to ensure the water is safe, Couillard.
Multiple steps in the water treatment process are barriers that prevent contaminants from reaching household taps. Treatment begins with ozone, the primary disinfectant capable of killing parasites, including Cryptosporidium. Ozone water treatment also destroys harmful compounds as well as substances that could cause taste and odor problems. Particles are removed in filters before chlorine is added as a secondary disinfectant to prevent growth of bacteria and other potentially harmful microorganisms in water mains.
The City of Valdosta Water Treatment Plant has been recognized as the 2013 Water Treatment Plant of the Year by the Georgia Association of Water Professionals (GAWP).
The plant was recently evaluated by GAWP inspectors on its well field operations, chemical processes and documentation, and scored 90% or better in all areas.
The water treatment plant processes over 3.5 billion gallons of drinking water for its residential, business and industrial customers annually. The state-of-the-art facility obtains the city’s water supply from 7 wells that are drilled into an underground layer of porous, water-bearing limestone known as the Upper Floridan Aquifer.
Originally built in 1992, the plant’s major treatment systems were upgraded in 2007 to maintain quality water services while keeping up with city growth. The plant uses ozone as the primary treatment process and was the first municipal plant in Georgia to use this technology. It has many innovative features, including on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite for secondary disinfection and computer monitoring and control of treatment processes.
The Georgia Association of Water Professionals (GAWP) is a not-for-profit association founded in 1932 with membership of over 4,000 water and wastewater treatment professionals. The organization’s main purpose is to educate and assist those who have an interest in the proper management and protection of Georgia’s water resources.
The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant in Mississauga, Ontario is celebrating its 60th anniversary. The celebration was held in the new administration and maintenance building that was designed to LEED Gold standards. It features a green roof, a design that automatically adjusts lighting and airflow, and geothermal power.
It was originally built to treat lake water by adding chlorine with a design capacity of 3 MGD. When the latest expansion is completed in 2015 the capacity will be 215 MGD. It will be one of the largest water treatment plants in the world and the largest in Canada. The original plant and the many expansions were engineered by CH2M Hill Canada or predecesor companies.
The Lakeview Water Treatment Plant is being expanded and improved yet again. The plant now uses membrane filtration, ozone water treatment and UV disinfection. As a result it is using some of the most advanced drinking water treatment technology in the world, resulting in tastes good and meets the highest standards for safety.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) awarded their Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement Award (OCEA) to ARCADIS US its Alvarado Water Treatment Plant Ozone Upgrade and Expansion Project in San Diego. The project increased capacity at the 62-year-old plant by nearly 70 percent and improved the disinfection process providing safer, better tasting water to San Diego’s growing communities.
The Alvarado Water Treatment Plant, the oldest active facility providing water to San Diego residents, now uses ozone rather than chlorine to disinfect the city’s drinking water. Ozone disinfection reduces the water’s level of potentially harmful chlorine by-product and removes tastes and odors for safer, more aesthetically-pleasing water. The ozone process was placed between settling and filtration.
Ozone use is expanding in the US and around the world due to the benefits of improved disenfection with less environmental impact. Billions of gallons per day of municipal water is now treated using ozone water treatment technology.
The new ozone facility includes providing the ozone contactor and associated equipment, together with a building to house it. The ozone building will be between 25ft and 18ft in height and will house three 1,000lbs per day ozone generators, ozone off-gas destruct system, pumps and chemical systems, and ozone contactors. The project was completed in 2011 at a cost of $57m.
Established in 1960, ASCE’s OCEA Award recognizes a project and the many engineers who have made a significant contribution to the civil engineering profession.
World demand for water disinfection products is projected to increase 5.5 percent per year to $7.7 billion in 2016.
There is continued concern about disinfection byproducts (DBPs), outbreaks of waterborne illness continue to occur even in developed countries as pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia are resistant to chlorine, heightened security and anti-terrorism measures have led to increased regulatory costs, and standards for water quality and wastewater treatment around the world are tightening — including pressure to treat wastewater so that it is suitable for reuse or resupply of source waters.
The net result of these factors has been a switch from elemental chlorine in favor of higher value chemicals and advanced treatment technologies. Sodium hypochlorite and hypochlorite generators, UV water treatment systems, and ozone water treatment systems will be the main beneficiaries of these changes. In addition to environmental advantages, growth in the use of equipment will be spurred by technological improvements and reduced costs, both of which have made these alternatives more attractive options.
The most dramatic changes in product mix are occurring in the municipal market. This trend is led by the US, which is pushing to replace chlorine gas. Around the world, municipal water treatment systems are reviewing their disinfection choices to determine the best technology. Industrial users favor high-end chemicals and nonchemical disinfection techniques.
Biofouling is an issue for various industries including power, chemical, marine, and food processing. It can also cause problems in drinking water distribution systems. If left untreated the growth of biofilms can cause operational problems. This is can be a a significant problem for industrial and HVAC cooling systems.
Once bacterial cells adhere to a surface they undergo changes which create the biofilm. In some cases they capture inorganic matter as part of the overall matrix. With time the primary biofilm can favor the development of higher organisms leading to macro-fouling, a common problem described especially in marine systems. Biofilms cause significant energy losses by increasing surface roughness, thus pressure drop in the piping systems. With the incorporation of inorganic materials or the development of macro fouling, significnat heat trasnfer losses can also occur.
Biocides are often used to control the development of biofilms. In cooling water systems other chemical treatments are also applied to control corrosion and deposition of scale-forming salts. The addition of these chemicals has to be chosen carefully to avoid any loss in efficacy due to cross chemical reaction between the additives. The ideal biocide should kill a broad spectrum of micro organisms, relatively low toxicity to higher life forms, minimize corrosion of cooling systems materials, degrade quickly in the environment and not damage other treatment chemicals.
Chlorine has long been used as a biocide because it kills many micro organisms and has a low cost. Recently there has been concern about chlorine compounds and their by-products due concern about environmental and and human health problems issues. As a result of the issues surrounding chlorine, alternative biocides have be adopted. Ozone is one such biocide that has found application in preventing biofilms in cooling systems and other applications. Ozone is a broad spectrum biocide, decomposes rapidly in the environment and is compatible with other water treatment chemicals. Continuous dosing of 0.15-0.30 ppm is normally enough to maintain closed loop fresh water cooling systems free of biofilms.
There is less information regarding biocidal action of ozone on marine organisms. A recent article in Ozone Science and Engineering discusses the biocidal efficacy of ozone and chlorine against planktonic and biofilm cells of two marine bacteria. Biocidal Efficacy of Ozone and chlorine on Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Two marine Bacteria Species, Sweta Swaraj, Rajesh Kumar, Y. V. Harinath & Toleti Subba Rao, pages 90-100, Volume 35, No. 2, 01 March 2013. The information is important for the use of either biocide in once through seawater cooling circuits. The study showed that both were effective in treating the subject organisms.