Padre Dam Municipal Water District (USA) opened its Advanced Water Purification Demonstration Facility in late April of this year. The demonstration facility will use advanced water purification technologies to purify and test approximately 100,000 gallons of recycled water each day.
The facility was designed to deal with California’s severe drought conditions by developing a new local water supply. The full scale system would have the potential to provide a water source that is up to 20 percent of Padre Dam’s current drinking water supply.
The new process has four treatment steps – free chlorine disinfection, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation (ultra violet light and hydrogen peroxide). Advanced oxidation is capable of killing difficult to eradicate pathogens and removing micro pollutants other processes can not treat.
If successful, the treated water would be injected into the ground water basin to be withdrawn at a later time for treatment prior to distribution as drinking water. Additionally, Padre Dam will study the possibility of expanding Padre Dam’s proposed Advanced Water Purification Project to accommodate and treat wastewater from the other agencies’ service areas in order to provide additional water supplies. This expanded program could produce up to 10 million gallons of water per day.
The IOA/IUVA World Congress will take place in las Vegas, NV from September 23rd to September 26th. The world congress of these two organizations is held every two years and roates between the US/Canada, Europe and Japan.
The congress will feature comprehensive techemical sessions covering various aspects of ozone, UV and advanced oxidation processes, a commercial exhibition many ozone and UV system suppliers as well as a social program of receptions and dinners to allow for networking.
The technical program will cover primarily ozone water treatment, UV water treatment and advanced oxidation applications. Authors from around the world will present papers, many of which will ultimately appears in refereed scientific journals. Time is allowed during and after the technical sessions to ask questions of the speakers to get a more in depth understanding of the tiopics.
To register visit worldcongress2013.org.
A municipal drinking water system in a new high-tech industrial zone in South Korea has contracted for an ultraviolet (UV) advanced oxidation process (AOP) treatment technology. This is the firts time such a technology will be applied in Korea for drinking water.
The water treatment facility will treat more than 26 million gallons per day, and will be the first step in the development of the new $3 billion Sihwa Multi-Tech Valley project, a government-backed regional industrial development initiative being implemented by the K-Water municipality. The new hub for the enterprise is due to be completed by 2016, and aims to attract high-tech industries across the IT, chemicals and R&D sectors.
UV reactors and AOP technology will be used in the existing plant, Siheung wastewater treatment plant, for the removal of micro pollutants and disifection.
AOP is being used around the world to address problems associated with micro pollutants such as pesticides, personal care products and pharmaceuticals that find their way into drinking water sources.
Fracking has created a large application for various water treatment technologies such as ozone and advanced oxidation processes. Both processes have been used to either breakdown organic contaminants in the water, remove Fe and other minerals or for disinfection of the water prior to injection. An advantage of ozone based processes is that the ozone is made from air and after reaction breaks down into oxygen, leaving no dangerous byproducts and simplifying logistics.
The stock market is starting to take notice. Environmental services stock Heckmann Corporation soared nearly 38% on the NYSE after announcing the acquisition of privately held Power Fuels for $125 million in cash and 95 million shares of stocks. Both companies are involved in fracking water treatment. Ecosphere, which uses ozone based processes, is also a public company drawing a lot of attention.
As the use of fracking continues to expand, ozone and advanced oxidation should continue to see increased usage.
Ontario is investing in innovative solutions to help protect Great Lakes water quality. The Keswick Water Pollution Control Plant is testing an advanced oxidation process to reduce the amount of phosphorus and micro pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products entering Lake Simcoe.
Advanced oxidation processes have been demonstrated to remove pharmaceutical and personal care products from water and wastewater and several municipalities have initiated treatment systems based on this technology already.
The Keswick project is part of Showcasing Water Innovation, a program that supports projects that demonstrate innovative and cost effective approaches to improve drinking water, wastewater treatment, and storm water systems that can be used by communities across the province.
The program is helping communities find innovative wastewater treatment solutions to keep Great Lakes healthy. 80 percent of Ontarians get their drinking water from the Great Lakes. Water and wastewater is the largest sub-sector of Ontario’s environment industry employing 22,000 people and generating and $1.8 billion in sales.
Water Factory 21 (WF21), Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD), was dedicated in a 1977 and transforms secondary municipal wastewater into water that exceeds drinking water standards. In 1991, the Orange County Water District (OCWD) was granted a California Department of Health Services permit to inject 100 percent reclaimed wastewater into a potable water aquifer without blending.
In early 1997, Orange Country planned and constructed the world’s largest indirect potable reuse system which was completed in 2008. The 70 MGD facility will eventually produce 130 MGD. It employs micro filtration, reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation treatment.
The facility has won many awards and has demonstrated that municipal wastewater can be reclaimed for uses up to and including potable water supply. It has served as a model for other agencies and encouraged the development of water reclamation around the world.
The Otter Lake Water Commission has submitted is plan, as well as a loan application for nearly $2 million, to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) public water supply loan program. The Otter Lake commission is responsible for water treatment and for the distribution systems that transmit water to 467 individual and nine wholesale customers in an area that includes Auburn, Divernon, Girard, Pawnee, Thayer, Nilwood, Glenarm, Tovey, South Palmyra Rural Water District, Henderson Rural Water District and rural customers.
The commission in 2010 completed a $6 million expansion to the water treatment plant on the east side of Otter Lake just west of Girard, IL. The additional money will allow the plant to meet a new requirement for the cryptosporidium parasite that will require additional treatment. The microscopic parasite can cause diarrhea and more severe complications, particularly in children or people with immune-system disorders.
The commission had engineering studies done to determine the most cost-effective way of removing the parasite, as well as controlling taste and odor. Based on those evaluations, an ultraviolet light system with advanced oxidation process was selected.
The project is scheduled for completion by October 2013.
In summer 2011, the City of San Diego opened the Advanced Water Purification (AWP) Facility, a small-scale, state-of-the-art facility that purifies one MGD of recycled water. The facility is one component of the City’s Water Purification Demonstration Project that is examining the safety and cost of purifying recycled water. San Diego is examining water purification as a means to develop a locally controlled, supplemental water supply. San Diego’s semi-arid region is at the end of pipelines that bring imported water from hundreds of miles away. The City needs to develop local, reliable water sources to lessen its dependence on expensive and limited imported water supplies.
All wastewater in San Diego undergoes treatment to remove harmful contaminants, making it safe enough to be discharged into the ocean. Some wastewater is diverted to the City’s recycled water facilities, where it is further treated and then used for irrigation and industrial purposes. A portion of the recycled water produced at the North City Water Reclamation Plant is sent to the AWP Facility.
To become purified water, the recycled water undergoes a multi-barrier purification process, which includes membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with ultraviolet disinfection and high-strength hydrogen peroxide. The multi-barrier approach of consecutive treatment steps removes or destroys all unwanted materials in the water and produces one of the purest supplies of water available anywhere. The same water purification process is already used around the world.
Visitors are encouraged to tour the City of San Diego’s AWP Facility.
The province of Ontario is assisting the York region develop solutions to protect and to provide safe, reliable clean drinking water. The new Showcasing Water Innovation program supports projects with innovative and cost-effective ways to improve drinking water, waste water and storm water systems. Ontario has the highest standards for clean water in North America and has gone on to develop water technologies that are used around the world. The Regional Municipality of York is a recognized leader in environmental initiatives.
Water Innovation Project funding in York includes the Lake Simcoe/The Regional Municipality of York Pilot Plant, which will include pilot testing of advanced oxidation for removal of micro pollutants from municipal waste water in collaboration with the University of Toronto. Advanced oxidation technologies have been shown to effectively remove various micro pollutants from water including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides.
A panel was gathered at Northern Arizona University DuBois Center to answer questionsabout wastewater treatment techniques and the safety of using or drinking reclaimed water. Flagstaff plans to sell reclaimed water to an Arizona sledding facility for snow making.
The panel included Shane Snyder of the U of Arizona, Chuck Graf of the Arizona DEQ and Guy Carpenter, a water reuse proponent and engineer. Dr. Snyder indicated that there is no litmus test to say for sure of the water is safe and that a risk analysis needs to be done. Mr. Graf felt that the risk was minimal. Mr Carpenter noted that there has been no evidence to date that reclaimed water is causing problems.
The application discussed at the meeting, snow making only creates casual human contact. Studies with mice and other mammals indicate that there is no apparent risk from this use.
Last year, Flagstaff got about 40 percent of its total water supply from Lake Mary, another 40 percent from underground wells and about 20 percent by treating waste water. That waste water is used for golf courses (the biggest consumer), manufacturing and construction, but the majority of this water is sent down the Rio de Flag in central Flagstaff and east Flagstaff, where it ultimately becomes part of the groundwater supply.
A University of Minnesota study finding one of the more advanced sewage treatment plants in the country was releasing material found in drug-resistant bacteria that can sometimes be fatal for people, including Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). No live bacteria were found, however. Public health experts said the finding from Minnesota was noteworthy and that few facilities nationwide were subject to testing that would detect the so-called “superbugs.”
It seems likely that the use of reclaimed water will likely require additional testing and more sophisticated treatment in the future. New treatment will likely involve the use of advanced oxidation processes and ozone to insure that micro pollutants and super bugs do not reach people. Studies of these techniques indicate that they are indeed effectively in cleaning up the water.